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Java Phrasebook By Timothy R. Fisher Published Nov 6, by Sams. Part of the Developer's Library series. Book Sorry, this book is no longer in print. Not for Sale. Concise and Accessible Easy to carry and easy to use—lets you ditch all those bulky books for one portable guide Flexible and Functional Packed with more than customizable code snippets—so you can readily code functional Java in just about any situation Timothy Fisher has been working professionally in the Java software development field since and is currently a consultant for the Compuware Corporation in Detroit, Michigan.

More Information. Unlimited one-month access with your purchase. See Details. Python for Programmers By Paul J. Join Sign In. From an operations perspective, this means you treat Clojure programs the same as Java programs. You compile them to JAR files and run them using the java command. If a client needs a pro gram that runs on the JVM, you could secretly write it in Clojure instead of Java and they would be none the wiser.

Clojure allows you to be productive and sneaky.

For those who need the two-minute lowdown, here it is: the central players in OOP are classes , objects , and methods. I think of objects as really, really, ridiculously dumb androids. These androids only do two things: they respond to commands and they maintain data.

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In my imagination they do this by writing stuff down on little Hello Kitty clipboards. Imagine a factory that makes these androids. In OOP terms, the factories correspond to classes, the androids correspond to objects, and the commands correspond to methods. For example, you might have a ScaryClown factory class that produces androids objects that respond to the command method makeBalloonArt. It can report that number with balloonCount and receive any number of balloons with receiveBalloons.

It also shows you how to call methods such as balloonCount , receiveBalloons , and makeBalloonArt on the object, presumably so you can terrify children. In OOP terms, you would say that classes also have methods.

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For example, the built-in class Math has many class methods, including Math. Go ahead and create a new directory called phrasebook. In that directory, create a file called PiratePhrases. It consists of a class, PiratePhrases , and a static method belonging to that class, main. Static methods are essentially class methods. In your terminal, compile the PiratePhrases source code with the command javac PiratePhrases. Now run it with java PiratePhrases. You should see this:. This file is packed with oodles of Java bytecode well, for a program this size, maybe only one oodle. The classpath is the list of filesystem paths that the JVM searches to find a file that defines a class.

This is how java knows to try looking in PiratePhrases. Then, create Greetings. Now create Farewells. If you run javac PirateConversation. Try typing the following:. The Java compiler just told you to hang your head in shame and maybe weep a little. When you run javac.. Without changing directories, try running javac -classpath.. Shiver me timbers, it works! In summary, packages organize code and require a matching directory structure.

JAR files allow you to bundle all your. Navigate to your phrasebook directory and run the following:. This displays the pirate conversation correctly. You bundled all the class files into conversation. Using the e flag, you also indicated that the PirateConversation class is the entry point.

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MF within the JAR file. If you were to read that file, it would contain this line:. The reason is that the JAR file maintains the directory structure. You can see its contents with jar tf conversation. You can treat them the same as any other ZIP file. Download the 1.

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How did it actually start up? MF in the JAR file:. It looks like clojure. Where does this class come from? As you can see, the file defines a class named main. It belongs to the package clojure and defines a public static main method, and the JVM is completely happy to use it as an entry point. Seen this way, Clojure is a JVM program just like any other. As it turns out, you can make the Clojure compiler generate a class for a namespace by putting the :gen-class directive in the namespace declaration.

You can see this in the very first Clojure program you created, clojure-noob in Chapter 1. Remember that program, little teapot? So, if you define a -main function in a namespace and include the :gen-class directive, and also set :main in your project.

The Java Programmer's Phrase Book

You can try this out in your terminal by navigating to your clojure-noob directory and running this:. The ability to use Java classes, objects, and methods is called Java interop. You can call methods on an object using. For example , because all Clojure strings are implemented as Java strings, you can call Java methods on them:. All of these examples except java. Nevertheless, here is each example followed by its macroexpansion:. The previous section showed you how to call methods on objects that already exist. You can create a new object in two ways: new ClassName optional-args and ClassName.

Most people use the dot version, ClassName. To modify an object, you call methods on it like you did in the previous section. This class represents a last-in, first-out LIFO stack of objects, or just stack. When you add a coin to your stack, you add it to the top of the stack.

When you remove a coin, you remove it from the top. Thus, the last object added is the first object removed. Unlike Clojure data structure, Java stacks are mutable. You can add items to them and remove items, changing the object instead of deriving a new value. There are a couple of interesting details here. Clojure provides the doto macro, which allows you to execute multiple methods on the same object more succinctly:.